‘A’ Customs Union? ‘The’ Customs Union? British EU Delusions

  This article was first published in The Present Age magazine Vol. 3 No. 12, March 2018   When I was teaching English in Japan many years ago, one of the many difficulties my students had with the English language was the difference between ‘a’ and ‘the’, which language teachers and linguists call the indefinite and definite article respectively. It was not surprising that the...
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The Cecils and the End of the British Empire

This article was first published in the monthly magazine The Present Age Vol. 3 No. 7 in October 2017 This is the fourth in a short series of articles about the historical consequences of the rivalry between Philip IV (the Fair) of France (r.1285-1314), who destroyed the Order of the Knights Templar, and his rival Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307) who sought to conquer Wales and Scotland....
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The Cecils – Uncle and Nephew

This article was first published in the monthly magazine The Present Age September 2017, Vol. 3 No. 6 This is the third in a series of 5 articles which is rooted in the tortuous destiny between England and France, the two western countries which ‘pioneered’ modern nationalism, that view of life that has had such fateful consequences over the past 250 years. The modern western concept of the...
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The Cecils – Father and Son

This article was first published in the monthly magazine The Present Age August 2017, Vol. 3 No. 5 The previous article to this one, in the July issue of “The Present Age” magazine, outlined how and why a certain mysterious and often tragic connection can be said to exist between the deeds of King Philip IV (‘the Fair’) of France (1285-1314) and those of King Henry VIII of...
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King Philip IV (‘the Fair’) of France and Henry VIII of England

This article was first published in The Present Age magazine Vol. 3 No. 5 July 2017 In a lecture of 1 October 1916 Rudolf Steiner discusses the superficiality of much of the modern study of history and points out that “when one traces things back to their causes in the superficial easy-going way that modern history largely employs, one comes to positive absurdities. Ultimately, one would have...
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Aspects of the Brexit Referendum – The One and the Many

This article was first published (with slight abridgements) in New View magazine Issue 80 July  – Sept. 2016 On 23 June this year Britain’s referendum on membership of the European Union (EU) resulted in a  dramatic decision to exit the European Union (EU), but the decision does not change certain fundamental underlying elements of our social and economic life today. The economic...
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